1. What waist girth in men and women is related to an increased obesity-related risk of disease?
Waist girth is an important measure of abdominal obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of several obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using waist circumference as a simple and reliable indicator of abdominal obesity.

According to the WHO, the following waist circumference thresholds are associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases in men and women:


Waist circumference greater than 94 cm (37 inches)

Waist circumference greater than 80 cm (31.5 inches)
It is important to note that these guidelines are intended as general recommendations and may not be applicable to all individuals. Factors such as age, ethnicity, and overall health may also impact the relationship between waist circumference and disease risk. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice on managing weight and preventing obesity-related diseases.
2. What are the average waist-to-hip ratios in young (20-29 years old) men and women?
3. What is the value of waist-to-height ratio used to distinguish between higher and lower risk of disease?
4. How are girth measurement and skinfold thickness affected by age?
5. What is the rationale for using girth measurements to estimate percent body fat?
6. How well do percent body fats estimated by skinfolds correlates with those measured hydrostatically?
7. How is BMI defined?
8. How is BMI calculated? and What are the limitations?
9. How is BMI used by epidemiologist (Study Populations)?
10. Comapre and contrast various body composition assesments and how accurate are they? (Hand Held BIA/Standing BIA and % error).
11. What values of BMI correspond with the different classification of body composition? (Explain in detail)
12. How is BMI related to Cardiovascular disease and mortality?
13. If a sedentary patient/client with a BMI of 33 with a medical history of Asthma, Hypertension, and Arthritis wants to start exercising to lose weight. What intensity and duration would you have them start off at? and what life style modifcations would you reccommend and why? (Use Powerpoints Provided Under Readings)
14. Based off your client/ athetlet’s BMR (3,000 kcal) and his Marcos at 55% Carbs, 30% Fats and 15% Protein. How many calories of each should your client/athetlet be eating to maintain/lose/gain weight? Hint Protein & Carbs 4kcal per 1g and Fat is 9kcal per 1g.
15. Why is muscular Strength important?
16. 2. Performing the 1RM what are some limitations that may have cause erroneous readings?
17. 3. How can a person’s level of fitness/ athleticism affect 1RM results?
18. 4. How do the male and female results differ when examining absolute weight lifted? Relative weight lifted?
19. 5. Based on Individual data, how do you compare with the class averages?
20. What muscles are involved in sprinting/Jumping?
21. What energy system dominate and how do the energy systems contribute to sprinting/Jumping?
22. What type of activity is best performed in preparation for sprinting/Jumping? What kind of warm up?
23. The power generated during the vertical jump test depends on what three components of the jump? and explain the anatomy/muscles that are recruited during the concentric and eccentric porotions.
24. Explain what energy system is predominantly used during static jump and countermovement jump and how long does it last?
25. What are the key difference for the static jump and countermovement jump and how might they make a difference?
26. How are the vertical jump and body mass used to derive leg power?
27. 1. Why was the Forestry Step Test developed and by whom was it developed?
28. 2. What metabolic pathway is dominate during the Aerobic Step Test, and explain why not one pathway is 100% dominate.
29. 3. Why is a Vo2Max of 45 required for Wilderness firefighters?
30. 4. What was the rationale behind the Forestry Step Testa and The Queens College Step Test?
31. 5. What is the step cadence for the Forest Step Test and what are the step heights for men and women?
32. 6. What is the effect of age on Vo2Max estimated for the Forest Step Test?
33. 7. How does a higher Vo2Max dictate perfromance? and What is meant by economy of effort ?
34. Compare and contrast the various sit and reach test and how they might effect flexibility.
35. What is the effect of sex/gender on sit and reach flexibility tests?
36. What are the expected ROM for Shoulder Flexion, Elbow Flexion, Hip Flexion, knee flexion, Ankle dorsiflexion, and Ankle plantarflexion?
37. What problems can tight hamstrings/ Hip Flexors cause?
-Explain in detail incorporating the Anatomy and Physiology of the muscles (Origin/Insertion).
– Design a Exercise/stretching program to improved hamstring flexibility. Explain you reasoning for selecting the exercise/stretches (What muscles do they target and how are they effected?)
5. What is the expected shoulder ROM, what are common shoulder pains and shoulder problems
Explain in detail incorporating the Anatomy and Physiology of the muscles (Origin/Insertion).
– Design a Exercise/stretching program to improved hamstring flexibility. Explain you reasoning for selecting the exercise/stretches (What muscles do they target and how are they effected?)
How is Isometric or static strength defined?
How well does handgrip strength correlated with total body strength?
In what unit is handgrip strength (force) described?
Does grip strength differ when measured in standing position versus the sitting position?
Does arm position (elbow angle) affect grip strength?
What is a sufficient rest interval between trials of grip strength measurement?
During which decade in life does grip strength appear to begin to decline?
Are bilateral differences in grip strength observed and why?
Case Study 1
Sabrina is a 67-year-old woman with a history of cardiac abnormalities. You perform a resting ECG test to evaluate her heart’s electrical activity. You notice that her PR interval is 0.25 s. Considering that this measure is often between 0.12 s and 0.20 s, what does this indicate about the anatomical locale as the source of the electrical disturbance in Sabrina’s heart?

Case Study 2
Ralf is a 72-year-old retired air force captain who has come into your facility and revealed that he has suffered a myocardial infarction in the last 4 months. What might you suspect you would see in his resting ECG? Are there other indicators in his resting ECG strip that you can relate to his myocardial infarction?

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