Plan of Care for a Patient with a Pancreatic Tumor Obstructing the Common Bile Duct

Pancreatic cancer is a serious condition that often presents with non-specific symptoms, making early diagnosis challenging. When a tumor obstructs the common bile duct, it can lead to jaundice, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting (Freelove and Walling, 2019). This paper outlines a comprehensive plan of care for a 52-year-old male patient presenting with these symptoms who is found to have a pancreatic tumor blocking the common bile duct.

Patient Assessment
The 52-year-old male patient presents to the emergency department complaining of yellowing skin, stomach pain, and nausea. He has a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, which are known risk factors for pancreatic cancer (McGuigan et al., 2018). A CT scan reveals a tumor near the pancreas obstructing the common bile duct. The patient’s vital signs should be closely monitored for any signs of distress or complications. A thorough physical examination should be conducted, assessing for jaundice, abdominal tenderness, and signs of dehydration (Singhi et al., 2019).

Nursing Diagnosis
Based on the patient’s presentation and diagnostic findings, several nursing diagnoses can be considered:

1. Acute pain related to the pancreatic tumor and bile duct obstruction
2. Imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements related to impaired digestion and absorption
3. Risk for deficient fluid volume related to vomiting, nausea, and biliary obstruction
4. Anxiety related to the diagnosis and anticipated treatment (Nanda International, 2021)

Nursing Interventions
The nursing care plan should focus on relieving symptoms, preventing complications, and supporting the patient through diagnosis and treatment. Key interventions include:

1. Pain management using prescribed medications and non-pharmacological techniques
2. Monitoring and managing fluid and electrolyte balance
3. Administering antiemetic medications to control nausea and vomiting
4. Collaborating with the healthcare team to prepare the patient for diagnostic tests and procedures
5. Providing positioning and comfort measures
6. Assisting with activities of daily living as tolerated (Freelove and Walling, 2019)

Patient Education
Educating the patient about their condition, treatment options, and lifestyle modifications is crucial. The nursing team should:

1. Explain the diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis in easily understood terms
2. Emphasize the importance of smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence
3. Provide information on prescribed medications, including purpose, dosage, and potential side effects
4. Discuss dietary modifications and the importance of maintaining adequate nutrition
5. Offer emotional support and resources for coping with anxiety and stress (McGuigan et al., 2018)

Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Managing a patient with a pancreatic tumor obstructing the common bile duct requires a multidisciplinary approach. The nursing team should collaborate closely with:

1. Gastroenterologists for further evaluation and management of the pancreatic tumor
2. Surgeons for potential interventions such as a Whipple procedure or endoscopic stent placement
3. Oncologists for considering chemotherapy or radiation therapy as part of the treatment plan
4. Dietitians for nutritional assessment and support (Singhi et al., 2019)

Conclusion
Developing a comprehensive plan of care for a patient with a pancreatic tumor obstructing the common bile duct involves thorough assessment, targeted nursing interventions, patient education, and interdisciplinary collaboration. By addressing the patient’s physical, emotional, and educational needs, the nursing team can optimize outcomes and quality of life throughout the diagnostic and treatment process.

References:
Freelove, R. and Walling, A.D. (2019) ‘Pancreatic cancer: diagnosis and management’, American Family Physician, 99(7), pp. 417-425.

McGuigan, A. et al. (2018) ‘Pancreatic cancer: a review of clinical diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes’, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 24(43), pp. 4846-4861. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i43.4846.

Nanda International (2021) Nursing diagnoses: definitions and classification 2021-2023. 12th edn. New York: Thieme Publishers.

Singhi, A.D. et al. (2019) ‘Early detection of pancreatic cancer: opportunities and challenges’, Gastroenterology, 156(7), pp. 2024-2040. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.01.259.

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Your patient is a 52-year-old male with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse. He presents to the ED with complaints of “my skin looks yellow, my stomach hurts, and I feel nauseous”. He is taken to CT and a tumor near the pancreas is observed. It appears to be blocking the common bile duct. Develop a plan of care for the patient. Use the attached concept map.

NUR2790 Module 10 Concept Map

Submit your completed assignment by following the directions linked below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document. (Mac users, please remember to append the “.docx” extension to the filename.) The name of the file should be your first initial and last name, followed by an underscore and the name of the assignment, and an underscore and the date. An example is shown below:

attachment
NUR2790_Module10_ConceptMap_v2.docx

A picture containing text Description automatically generated

Student’s Name Rasmussen NPR Concept Plan Date

Nursing Interventions

Possible Nursing Diagnosis

Clinical Manifestations

Subjective:

Objective:

Medical Diagnosis

Patient Data/Risk Factors

Possible Medications

Patient Education

Diagnostic Data

Pathophysiology

Medical Interventions

____________________________

Nursing Interventions:

Assess vital signs and monitor for any signs of distress or complications.
Provide pain management using prescribed medications and non-pharmacological techniques.
Monitor and manage the patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance.
Administer antiemetic medications as prescribed to alleviate nausea and vomiting.
Collaborate with the healthcare team to prepare the patient for further diagnostic tests or procedures.
Assist with positioning and comfort measures to promote patient’s well-being.
Encourage and assist the patient with activities of daily living as tolerated.
Possible Nursing Diagnosis:

Acute Pain related to the tumor near the pancreas and blockage of the common bile duct.
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to impaired digestion and absorption caused by the tumor.
Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume related to vomiting, nausea, and obstruction of the common bile duct.
Anxiety related to the diagnosis and treatment plan.
Clinical Manifestations:
Subjective:

Complaints of skin appearing yellow.
Stomach pain.
Nausea.
Objective:

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
Abdominal tenderness or pain.
Nausea and vomiting.
Weight loss.
Medical Diagnosis:
Tumor near the pancreas causing blockage of the common bile duct.

Patient Data/Risk Factors:

52-year-old male.
History of smoking and alcohol abuse.
Possible Medications:

Pain medications (e.g., opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
Antiemetic medications (e.g., ondansetron, metoclopramide).
Patient Education:

Educate the patient about the diagnosis, treatment plan, and prognosis.
Provide information about the importance of smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence.
Explain the purpose, dosage, and possible side effects of prescribed medications.
Discuss dietary modifications and the importance of maintaining good nutrition.
Provide emotional support and resources for coping with anxiety and stress.
Diagnostic Data:

CT scan showing a tumor near the pancreas and blockage of the common bile duct.
Pathophysiology:
The patient’s history of smoking and alcohol abuse puts him at risk for developing pancreatic cancer. The tumor near the pancreas is blocking the common bile duct, leading to the backup of bile in the liver and resulting in jaundice. The obstruction can also cause abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The impaired functioning of the pancreas can lead to difficulties in digestion and absorption of nutrients, resulting in weight loss and imbalanced nutrition.

Medical Interventions:

Consultation with a gastroenterologist for further evaluation and management of the pancreatic tumor.
Possible surgical intervention, such as a pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) or endoscopic stent placement to relieve the obstruction.
Chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be considered as part of the treatment plan, depending on the stage and extent of the tumor.
Ongoing monitoring of the patient’s condition and response to treatment.

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