TCHR2002 CHILDREN, FAMILIES & COMMUNITIES
ASSESSMENT 1: Portfolio

Summary
Title Assessment 1: Portfolio of short responses
Due Date Monday 24th July (WEEK 4) @ 11:59pm (AEDT)
Length 1500 words including references
Weighting 50%
Submission 1 word document submitted to Turnitin
Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO) You will demonstrate the following Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO) on the successful completion of this task:

• ULO 1: compare and critique historical and contemporary constructions of childhood and families, including those pertaining to Indigenous childhoods.
• ULO 2: identify the ways to ensure children feel that they are belonging, being, and becoming.
• ULO 3: explain the diverse range of issues affecting children, families and communities including social, economic and educational policies and their impact upon service provision for children and families.
• ULO4: Critically analyse texts, images, and songs in terms of the construction of childhood, and families across diverse contexts.

Task Description
This task requires students to reflect upon key issues presented in Modules 1-3 and complete three (3) x 500 word responses to the questions below under Task Instructions.

Rationale
Working with and supporting children and families within the context of their community can present challenges. Early childhood professionals should reflect on the diversity of issues that face children and families. The aim of this assessment task is for students to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding regarding contemporary and diverse issues facing children, families and communities.

Task Instructions
You are required to answer each of the following three questions in approximately 500 words. All responses must be literature supported.

Question 1

Part A: In your own words, write a short definition (2-3 sentences) for proximal processes.

Part B: Think about the aspects that influence children’s lives today and how this has changed over the last twenty years. With reference to the unit content discuss how contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to how life influenced them in the past. Frame your answer using the levels in Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model.

Question 2

The extent to which victims of bullying suffer negative outcomes is partly determined by how they cope with being bullied. In your future practice as an early childhood teacher, how can you ensure the children in your care have the skills and strategies to overcome bullying incidents with reference to the unit content. Make links to the Early Years Learning Framework (DET, 2022) where relevant.

Question 3

You are working at a long day care centre where a new family has enrolled. You have planned a cooking experience with the children when the boy (aged 4) states, “cooking is the girl’s job, boys should not cook!” Discuss the following points with reference to the unit content:
 What language and actions would you use to handle this situation?
 How can you teach gender equality as part of the Australian culture with children aged 3-5 years?
 What are the strategies you could implement to work towards social justice and equity?

Follow the steps to complete the task:

• Create a new Word Document and save it with your surname and initials and the assessment task’s name. E.g: MillsA_assessment1_portfolio
• Create a cover page with the following details:
o Student name
o Student ID
o Unit code
o Unit Assessor and Tutor names
o Date submitted
• Complete three (3) x 500 word responses to the prompts listed above. Responses must be literature supported.
• Complete one reference list for the entire assessment task.
• Once complete, submit task via the Turnitin link in the Assessment and Submission section of the unit site.
• Adhere to APA7 formatting guidelines

Referencing Style
APA 7th referencing format is required in Faculty of Education assessment tasks – link to SCU Libguide here: APA 7 Referencing.

Task Submission
Assessments should be submitted using the Turnitin activity titled “Assessment 1: Portfolio” in the Assessments Tasks & Submission section on the Blackboard TCHR2002 site. Only Microsoft Word documents submitted via the Turnitin portal on Blackboard will be accepted. You must label your submission with your surname and initials and the assessment task’s name, e.g: ByrneT_assessment1_portfolio

Special Consideration
Students wishing to request special consideration to extend the due date of an assessment task must submit a Request for Special Consideration form via their MyEnrolment page as early as possible and prior to the original due date for that assessment task, along with any accompanying documents, such as medical certificates.
Late Submissions & Penalties
Except when special consideration is awarded, late submission of assessment tasks will lead automatically to the imposition of a penalty. Penalties will be incurred as soon as the deadline is reached.
• a penalty of 5% of the available marks will be deducted from the actual mark at one minute after the time listed in the due date.
• a further penalty of 5% of the available mark will be deducted from the actual mark achieved on each subsequent calendar day until the mark reaches zero.”

Grades & Feedback
Assignments that have been submitted by the due date will receive an SCU grade and written feedback. Grades and feedback will be posted to “Grades & Feedback” section on the Blackboard unit site. Please allow 7 working days for marks to be posted.

Academic Integrity
At Southern Cross University academic integrity means behaving with the values of honesty, fairness, trustworthiness, courage, responsibility and respect in relation to academic work. The Southern Cross University Academic Integrity Framework aims to develop a holistic, systematic and consistent approach to addressing academic integrity across the entire University. For more information see the SCU Academic Integrity Framework

Assessment Rubric – Buy ‎Custom College Essays Online: Pay for essay online

Marking Criteria and & allocation
High Distinction
(85-100%) Distinction
(75-84%) Credit
(65-74%) Pass
(50-64%) Fail
(0-49%)
Criteria 1
Definition of proximal process
/5 marks Provides a well-articulated and concise definition of proximal processes accurately that reflects the concept. Provides a solid definition of proximal processes accurately that reflects the concept. Provides an appropriate definition of proximal processes that reflects the concept. Provides a satisfactory definition of proximal processes that reflects the concept; however, it may lack clarity and some minor inaccuracies.
Provides an inaccurate or irrelevant definition of proximal processes.
Criteria 2
Explanation of contemporary and historical influences on proximal processes and outcomes with reference to the unit content
/10marks Provides a comprehensive discussion of the ways in which contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to the past, using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to frame the answer.
Provides a clear and concise discussion of the ways in which contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to the past, using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to frame the answer. Provides an appropriate discussion of the ways in which contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to the past, using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to frame the answer. Provides a satisfactory discussion of the ways in which contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to the past, using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to frame the answer. Provides an inadequate or irrelevant discussion of the ways in which contemporary life may enhance or hinder proximal processes and outcomes compared to the past, using Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model to frame the answer.
Criteria 3
Strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying with reference to the unit content.
/15

Provides a comprehensive discussion of strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying, with clear links to the Early Years Learning Framework where relevant. Provides a clear and concise discussion of strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying, with links to the Early Years Learning Framework where relevant. Provides an appropriate discussion of strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying, with some links to the Early Years Learning Framework where relevant. Provides a satisfactory discussion of strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying, with few or no links to the Early Years Learning Framework where relevant. Provides an inadequate or irrelevant discussion of strategies for supporting children’s coping skills in response to bullying, with no links to the Early Years Learning Framework where relevant.

Criteria 4
Promoting gender equality and social justice in the early childhood setting with reference to the unit content
/15 Provides a comprehensive discussion of language and actions that could be used to address the situation, strategies for teaching gender equality to young children, and strategies for working towards social justice and equity in the early childhood setting. Provides a clear and concise discussion of language and actions that could be used to address the situation, strategies for teaching gender equality to young children, and strategies for working towards social justice and equity in the early childhood setting. Provides an appropriate discussion of language and actions that could be used to handle the situation, strategies for teaching gender equality to young children, and strategies for working towards social justice and equity in the early childhood setting, with minor limitations or errors.
Provides a satisfactory discussion of language and actions that could be used to handle the situation, strategies for teaching gender equality to young children, and strategies for working towards social justice and equity in the early childhood setting, with some limitations or errors. Provides an inadequate or irrelevant discussion of language and actions that could be used to handle the situation, strategies for teaching gender equality to young children, and strategies for working towards social justice and equity in the early childhood setting.

Exploring Contemporary Issues in Children, Families, and Communities

Proximal Processes and Ecological Influences
Proximal processes refer to the interactions and relationships between an individual and their immediate environment, which drive development over time (Rosa & Tudge, 2013). These processes are shaped by various factors within the ecological systems outlined in Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (Bronfenbrenner, 2005). Contemporary life presents both opportunities and challenges for proximal processes compared to past decades.

At the microsystem level, increased access to technology and digital media can enhance proximal processes by facilitating communication, learning, and exploration. However, excessive screen time and reduced face-to-face interactions may hinder the development of essential social skills (Chassiakos et al., 2016). Within the mesosystem, greater involvement of both parents in the workforce can strain family dynamics, but also provide economic stability and role models for children (Huerta et al., 2013). At the exosystem level, shifts in social policies and community resources influence proximal processes by shaping the availability and accessibility of support systems for families (Paat, 2013). Moreover, the macrosystem’s evolving societal norms and cultural values shape the context in which proximal processes occur (Vélez-Agosto et al., 2017).

Fostering Resilience against Bullying
As an early childhood teacher, promoting resilience and coping strategies is crucial to mitigate the negative impacts of bullying on children. Drawing from the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2022), a strong sense of identity and wellbeing can be nurtured through inclusive and respectful learning environments that value individual differences (Principle 1). Collaborative learning experiences that build social competence, emotional intelligence, and problem-solving skills can equip children with the tools to navigate conflicts and seek support when needed (DET, 2022, Outcome 1 & 3).

Additionally, fostering resilience involves promoting a growth mindset and encouraging children to reframe challenges as opportunities for learning and personal growth (Yeager & Dweck, 2020). Providing age-appropriate literature and role-playing scenarios can help children understand bullying behaviors, their consequences, and appropriate responses (Huang et al., 2018). Regular communication with families and the broader community is essential to establish consistent expectations and strategies for addressing bullying incidents (Bradshaw, 2015).

Promoting Gender Equality and Social Justice
When confronted with the statement “cooking is the girl’s job, boys should not cook,” it is crucial to address the underlying gender stereotypes promptly and sensitively. Language plays a powerful role in shaping perceptions, so using inclusive and affirming terms is essential. For instance, avoiding phrases like “boys/girls tasks” and instead focusing on the inherent value and enjoyment of cooking as a life skill for everyone (Witt, 2000).

To cultivate gender equality and social justice in children aged 3-5 years, early childhood educators can incorporate diverse representations of gender roles and family structures in curriculum materials, books, and discussions (Kollmayer et al., 2018). Providing equal opportunities for all children to engage in various activities, regardless of gender norms, can help challenge biases and foster a sense of fairness and respect (Warin, 2019).

Furthermore, implementing cooperative learning activities that highlight the strengths and contributions of all individuals can promote teamwork, empathy, and appreciation for diversity (Durlak et al., 2011). Engaging families and community members from diverse backgrounds can enrich children’s understanding of cultural perspectives and reinforce the importance of social justice and equity (Souto-Manning & Cheruvu, 2016).

Conclusion
Supporting children, families, and communities requires a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between proximal processes and ecological systems. By fostering resilience, promoting gender equality, and embracing social justice principles, early childhood professionals can create inclusive environments that nurture the holistic development and wellbeing of all children.


Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist, 70(4), 322-332. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038929

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Sage.

Chassiakos, Y. L. R., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M. A., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics, 138(5), e20162593. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2593

Department of Education and Training. (2022). Belonging, being & becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia course hero. Retrieved from https://www.dese.gov.au/download/2981/belonging-being-becoming-early-years-learning-framework-australia/19007/pdf/belonging-being-and-becoming-the-early-years-learning-framework-for-australia.pdf

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x

Huang, H., Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2018). Understanding factors associated with bullying and peer victimization in early childhood: An application of the social-ecological theory. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(5), 1491-1502. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0983-2

Huerta, M., Adema, W., Baxter, J., Han, W. J., Lausten, M., Lee, R., & Waldfogel, J. (2013). Fathers’ leave, fathers’ involvement and child development: Are they related? Evidence from four OECD countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 140. https://doi.org/10.1787/5k4dcw6d6tg7-en

Kollmayer, M., Schober, B., & Spiel, C. (2018). Gender stereotypes in education: Development of a scale on children’s gender stereotypes relating to academic ability. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1513. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01513

Paat, Y. F. (2013). Working with immigrant children and their families: An application of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 23(8), 954-966. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2013.800007

Rosa, E. M., & Tudge, J. (2013). Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human development: Its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5(4), 243-258. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12022

Souto-Manning, M., & Cheruvu, R. (2016). Challenging and appropriating discourses of power: Listening to young children from immigrant families. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, 10(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15595692.2015.1084918

Vélez-Agosto, N. M., Soto-Crespo, J. G., Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, M., Vega-Molina, S., & García Coll, C. (2017). Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory revision: Moving culture from the macro into the micro. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(5), 900-910. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617704397

Warin, J. (2019). Conceptualising the value of male practitioners in early childhood education and care: Gender balance or gender blasé?. International Journal of Early Years Education, 27(2), 111-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2018.1506325

Witt, S. D. (2000). The influence of peers on children’s socialization to gender roles. Early Child Development and Care, 162(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443001620101

Yeager, D. S., & Dweck, C. S. (2020). What can be learned from growth mindset controversies?. American Psychologist, 75(9), 1269-1284. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000794


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Assessment 1: Portfolio of Short Responses

This portfolio assesses students’ understanding and critical analysis of historical and contemporary constructions of childhood and families, issues affecting children, families, and communities, and strategies to promote belonging, well-being, and development. The portfolio comprises three 500-word responses that delve into specific questions related to these themes. Each response must be supported by relevant literature adhering to the APA 7 referencing format.

Question 1: Proximal Processes in Childhood Development

Part A: Proximal Processes Definition

Proximal processes refer to the dynamic interactions between an individual and their immediate environment, including interactions with significant individuals, cultural practices, and educational experiences. These processes play a crucial role in shaping a child’s development, influencing their cognitive, social, and emotional growth (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Proximal processes are characterized by active engagement and reciprocal interactions between the child and the environment.

Part B: Contemporary Influences on Proximal Processes and Outcomes

Over the past two decades, significant changes in contemporary life have influenced proximal processes and their outcomes for children. With the advent of digital technologies, globalization, and changes in family structures, children are exposed to a broader range of experiences and influences. These changes can either enhance or hinder proximal processes, depending on various factors.

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model provides a framework to understand how contemporary life influences proximal processes at different levels. The microsystem encompasses direct interactions with family, peers, and teachers. The mesosystem involves the connections between different microsystems, such as school and home environments. The exosystem consists of settings that indirectly impact the child, like parent’s workplace policies. Finally, the macrosystem incorporates cultural norms and societal values.

Contemporary life, with increased access to digital media and social networks, offers children opportunities for broader social interactions and learning experiences. However, excessive screen time and exposure to inappropriate content can hinder proximal processes, leading to reduced face-to-face interactions and potential negative impacts on socio-emotional development (Ferguson, 2017).

Furthermore, changes in family structures and economic conditions have shifted parental availability and roles, affecting the quality of proximal processes. For instance, single-parent households or families with both parents working long hours may have limited time for nurturing interactions, impacting children’s sense of security and emotional well-being (Hofferth & Anderson, 2018).

Question 2: Supporting Children’s Coping Skills in Response to Bullying

In early childhood education, it is crucial to foster resilience and coping skills among children to address bullying incidents effectively. The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) by the Department of Education and Training (2022) emphasizes the importance of promoting children’s well-being, confidence, and social competence.

To ensure children have the skills and strategies to overcome bullying incidents, early childhood teachers can implement the following strategies:

Promote a Positive and Inclusive Classroom Environment: Create a nurturing and respectful classroom climate that values diversity and fosters a sense of belonging for all children. Encourage open communication and empathy among peers.

Teach Emotional Regulation: Implement strategies to help children identify and express their emotions constructively. Teach techniques such as deep breathing, counting to calm down, or using “I” statements to express feelings assertively.

Encourage Problem-Solving Skills: Foster problem-solving skills by engaging children in discussions about conflicts and bullying scenarios. Encourage them to propose peaceful solutions and explore alternative perspectives.

Role-Model Respectful Behavior: Teachers should model respectful and positive behaviors in their interactions with children and peers. This sets an example for the children to follow.

Involve Parents and Caregivers: Collaborate with parents and caregivers to address bullying incidents collectively. Share strategies and resources to support children at home and reinforce classroom teachings.

Question 3: Promoting Gender Equality in Early Childhood Settings

Addressing gender stereotypes and promoting gender equality in early childhood settings is vital in shaping inclusive attitudes from an early age. To handle the situation where a child states a gender stereotype, teachers can respond with sensitivity and understanding. Some language and actions to use include:

Empathetic Language: Acknowledge the child’s statement without judgment and use empathetic language to understand their perspective. For example, say, “I understand that you feel that way, and it’s essential to talk about different opinions.”

Encourage Discussion: Initiate a discussion about gender roles and stereotypes, allowing children to share their thoughts and beliefs. Use age-appropriate resources, such as books and activities, to challenge stereotypes.

Promote Inclusive Language: Use language that promotes equality and avoids reinforcing gender stereotypes. For instance, use “chefs” instead of “cooks” and “people who cook” instead of associating cooking with specific genders.

Teaching gender equality to children aged 3-5 years can be achieved through various strategies:

Inclusive Play and Activities: Ensure play materials and activities are not gender-specific, encouraging both boys and girls to engage in a wide range of activities without limitations.

Diverse Role Models: Introduce children to diverse role models from different genders, professions, and cultural backgrounds through stories and discussions.

Reflect on Language: Continuously reflect on the language used in the classroom to avoid reinforcing gender stereotypes unintentionally.

Strategies to work towards social justice and equity in early childhood settings include:

Promote Diversity and Inclusion: Create an environment that values diversity and celebrates different cultures, languages, and abilities.

Anti-Bias Curriculum: Incorporate an anti-bias curriculum that challenges stereotypes and promotes social justice.

Professional Development: Provide ongoing professional development for educators to develop their understanding of social justice and equity issues.

Conclusion

This portfolio assessed students’ ability to critically analyze issues affecting children, families, and communities in the context of early childhood education. By reflecting on key questions and utilizing scholarly literature, students demonstrated their understanding of historical and contemporary constructions of childhood, strategies to support children’s coping skills, and approaches to promote gender equality and social justice in early childhood settings. Through thoughtful responses, students showcased their expertise in addressing challenges faced by early childhood professionals and their commitment to fostering a nurturing and inclusive learning environment.

References:

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.

Department of Education and Training [DET]. (2022). Belonging, Being, and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Australian Government.

Ferguson, C. J. (2017). Everything in moderation: Moderate use of screens unassociated with child behavior problems. Psychiatric Quarterly, 88(4), 797-805.

Hofferth, S. L., & Anderson, K. G. (2018). Changes in maternal and paternal involvement in child care in the United States, 2003–2011. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(5), 1216-1232.

References:

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.

Department of Education and Training [DET]. (2022). Belonging, Being, and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Australian Government.

Ferguson, C. J. (2017). Everything in moderation: Moderate use of screens unassociated with child behavior problems. Psychiatric Quarterly, 88(4), 797-

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